Miniaturized, multicolored light-emitting device arrays are promising for applications in sensing, imaging, computing, and more, but the range of emission colors achievable by a conventional light-emitting diode is limited by material or device constraints. In this work, we demonstrate a highly multicolored light-emitting array with 49 different, individually addressable colors on a single chip. The array consists of pulsed-driven metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors, which generate electroluminescence from microdispensed materials spanning a diverse range of colors and spectral shapes, enabling facile generation of arbitrary light spectra across a broad wavelength range (400 to 1400 nm). When combined with compressive reconstruction algorithms, these arrays can be used to perform spectroscopic measurements in a compact manner without diffractive optics. As an example, we demonstrate microscale spectral imaging of samples using a multiplexed electroluminescent array in conjunction with a monochrome camera.