Charge-Programmable Photopolymers for 3D Electronics via Additive Manufacturing


Charge-programmed 3D printing enables the fabrication of 3D electronics with lightweight and high precision via selective patterning of metals. This selective metal deposition is catalyzed by Pd nanoparticles that are specifically immobilized onto the charged surface and promises to fabricate a myriad of complex electronic devices with self-sensing, actuation, and structural elements assembled in a designed 3D layout. However, the achievable property space and the material-performance correlation of the charge-programmed printing remain unexplored. Herein, a series of photo-curable resins are designed for unveiling how the charge and crosslink densities synergistically impact the nanocatalyst-guided selective deposition in catalytic efficiency and properties of the 3D printed charge-programmed architectures, leading to high-quality 3D patterning of solid and liquid metals. The findings offer a wide tunability of the structural properties of the printed electronics, ranging from stiff to extreme flexibility. Capitalizing on these results, the printing and successful application of an ultralight-weight and deployable 3D multi-layer antenna system operating at an ultrahigh-frequency of 19 GHz are demonstrated.

Junbo Wang
Zhenpeng Xu
Ryan Hensleigh
Mack Sowers
Marcus A. Worsley
Yahya Rahmat-Samii
Publication date: 
January 25, 2024
Publication type: 
Journal Article
Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Xu, R. Hensleigh, H. Lu, M. Sowers, M. A. Worsley, Y. Rahmat-Samii, X. R. Zheng, Charge-Programmable Photopolymers for 3D Electronics via Additive Manufacturing. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2024, 2313839.